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Sepsis Push Reports Include Demographics, COVID Patients

Sepsis Push Reports Include Demographics, COVID Patients

For the last two years, the Michigan Value Collaborative (MVC) Coordinating Center has offered a sepsis service line developed in partnership with the Michigan Hospital Medicine Safety Consortium (HMS). In conjunction with this work, reports customized to each member hospital are distributed each year. The most recent iteration shared with members this week features several updates from the 2021 versions.

A new patient population snapshot table is one new feature that the MVC Coordinating Center added in order to integrate its demographic data. These tables (see Figure 1 for a sample table of a blinded acute-care hospital) provide each hospital with demographics for their sepsis patient population, including race, mean age, top patient zip codes, the most frequent and average number of comorbidities, the proportion of dual-eligible patients, and the proportion of patients with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19. Furthermore, this data is stratified by payer, providing additional insights into specific groups of patients.

Figure 1.

The inclusion of COVID-positive patient percentages is an important statistic since this iteration of the sepsis push report includes COVID patients, whereas the Coordinating Center removed these patients in previous versions. This final row of the patient population snapshot table will help hospitals understand the extent to which their data is driven (or not) by patients with a confirmed COVID diagnosis code. Across the collaborative, 90-day total episode payments increased in 2020, which can likely be attributed to episodes with a COVID diagnosis; however, the 2020 average is not much higher than the average from 2018 through early 2019 (see Figure 2). Since the COVID-19 pandemic hit regions of Michigan at different times, regional comparisons for select measures will be particularly useful in understanding one’s data. Different versions of the report were created for acute-care and critical access hospitals, which allowed for tailored comparison groups.

Figure 2.

The complete report compares MVC hospitals on 90-day risk-adjusted total episode payments, inpatient length of stay, Intensive Care Unit (ICU)/Cardiac Care Unit (CCU) utilization, inpatient mortality and discharge to hospice, 90-day post-acute care utilization, and 90-day readmission rates. Each figure presented reflects index admissions from 1/1/18 – 12/31/20 for Medicare FFS, Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan (BCBSM) PPO Commercial, Blue Care Network (BCN) Commercial, BCBSM PPO Medicare Advantage, BCN Medicare Advantage, and Medicaid.

In addition to continuing to offer its sepsis push reports, the MVC Coordinating Center also offers a bimonthly sepsis workgroup. The next workgroup will take place on Thursday, May 26 from 2-3 p.m., and will feature a presentation about successes in sepsis-bundle compliance. Register today to join the MVC Coordinating Center for this presentation and discussion.

If you have any suggestions on how these reports can be improved or the data made more actionable, the Coordinating Center would love to hear from you. We are also seeking feedback on how collaborative members are using this information in their quality improvement projects. Please reach out at michiganvaluecollaborative@gmail.com.

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2021 Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines Reviewed at Workgroup

2021 Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines Reviewed at Workgroup

On December 7, 2021, the Michigan Value Collaborative (MVC) held its bi-monthly virtual workgroup on sepsis featuring Dr. Hallie Prescott, Associate Professor at Michigan Medicine and the physician lead on the Michigan Hospital Medicine Safety Consortium (HMS) Sepsis Initiative. For this MVC and HMS co-sponsored workgroup, Dr. Prescott presented Updates in Sepsis: What is new in 2021 SSC Guidelines. Dr. Prescott is a pulmonary and critical care medicine specialist, and she practices clinically in the intensive care units at the University of Michigan Health and Ann Arbor Veterans Affairs hospitals. She is co-chair of the Surviving Sepsis Campaign Adult Guidelines and a council member of the International Sepsis Forum.

The workgroup began with an introduction to the International Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) guidelines and bundles, which are resources and implementation tools used to reduce sepsis and septic shock worldwide. The SSC Guidelines were originally published in 2004 and have been updated every four years, with the most recent edition being published in October 2021. A large panel of experts collaborates to evaluate the evidence and make recommendations (scaled by the strength of recommendation). Since their initial publication, health systems from the United States to Spain have used the SSC guidelines and tools to improve sepsis and septic shock care and outcomes.

Dr. Prescott’s presentation describing the SSC 2021 Adult Guidelines highlighted several recommendations and detailed the reasoning behind some of the changes made since 2016. The highlighted guidelines included recommendations for infection (antibiotic timing, use of antimicrobials) (see Figure 1), hemodynamics (resuscitative fluids, vasopressor timing), ventilation (ECMO), and additional therapies (IV corticosteroids, IV Vitamin C). In addition, a new section for long-term outcomes (see Figure 2) was also added to the newest guidelines and reviewed during the workgroup, addressing patient education, health and social screenings, and post-discharge follow-up. Out of all the discussed recommendations, the MVC and HMS members in attendance were most interested in antibiotic use, resuscitative fluids, central line use, and treatment prioritization.

Figure 1.

Figure 2.

The updated SSC Guidelines offer informative and valuable recommendations that can be used to improve sepsis care and outcomes. If you were unable to attend the workgroup or are simply interested in reviewing the presentation and discussion, a recording of the workgroup is available here. To read the full published SSC 2021 Adult Guidelines and review additional resources, click here.

The MVC Coordinating Center is interested in hearing how your organization has utilized the SSC 2021 Adult Guidelines to improve sepsis care and outcomes. If you would like to present at or attend an upcoming MVC workgroup, please contact the MVC Coordinating Center at the michiganvaluecollaborative@gmail.com.

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MVC Sepsis Workgroup Review

MVC Sepsis Workgroup Review

The Michigan Value Collaborative (MVC) holds bi-monthly virtual workgroups on six different clinical areas of focus. The goals of these workgroups are to help bring collaborative members together to discuss current quality improvement initiatives and/or challenging areas of practice. These six different clinical areas include chronic disease management (CDM), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), congestive heart failure (CHF), diabetes, joint, and sepsis. At the most recent MVC sepsis workgroup, the discussion centered around post-sepsis syndrome and how organizations are identifying and caring for patients that are diagnosed with this condition.

The group learnt that for several organizations, post-sepsis syndrome is not well understood, identified, or diagnosed which prompted some interesting discussion around this topic and the topic of sepsis itself. A number of studies have suggested that due to an aging population with an increased number of comorbidities, frequent use of immunosuppression therapy, expanded use of invasive procedures and medical devices, and multi-drug resistance, the incidence of sepsis has increased. However, the same studies share that in-hospital mortality has decreased. Credit for this decrease in mortality is associated with improved detection, establishing treatment earlier, improvements in critical care, and the implementation of evidence-based guidelines established by the Surviving Sepsis Campaign.

While survivors of sepsis have increased, identification of post-sepsis syndrome is garnering attention as many patients can suffer from a number of serious and long-lasting complications including delusions, debilitating muscle and joint pains, extreme exhaustion, poor concentration, reduced cognitive functioning, as well as mental health issues and concerns. Certain patients, such as the elderly, those with a preexisting condition, or those diagnosed with severe sepsis are more likely to develop post-sepsis syndrome.

Currently, the most effective method of treatment for post sepsis syndrome is to prevent an initial incidence of sepsis. Primary prevention includes hand washing, vaccination uptake, and managing any chronic conditions. Pharmacological strategies for the treatment of sepsis and the prevention of post-sepsis syndrome include:

• Antibiotic stewardship, to improve the use of antibiotics and using prolactin levels to decide when to stop antibiotic use.
• The use of H2-receptor agonists over proton pump inhibitors to prevent stress ulcers.
• Low dosage and short-term use of medications.
• Early mobility to prevent functional decline.

Non-pharmacological strategies for the prevention and treatment of sepsis to avert post-sepsis syndrome include:
• Sepsis treatment and the identification of post-sepsis syndrome education for frontline workers.
• Post-sepsis education for family and caregivers of sepsis survivors along with available resources.
• Vision/Hearing Aids to reduce the risk of delirium, as well as adaptive equipment.
• Referral for rehabilitation post sepsis survival.

MVC collaborative members from multiple facilities including Michigan Medicine, Henry Ford Wyandotte, Sparrow, and Spectrum Health discussed different ways in which they are working to identify sepsis as early as possible within their facilities. Many organizations have instituted a sepsis program, and some are looking to onboard a sepsis navigator. Dr. Jessie King, Program Director, shared information about the Post-Intensive Care Unit (ICU) research and treatment clinic (PULSE) now screening discharged ICU patients for post-sepsis syndrome, and the Michigan Medicine return on investment analysis which helped initiate a sepsis program. You can find the recording of the workgroup here.

The MVC Coordinating Center is interested in hearing how you are treating sepsis and the prevention and treatment of post-sepsis syndrome. We would like more hospitals to share the work they are doing around these important topics so if you would like to present at or attend an upcoming MVC workgroup, please email MVC at the michiganvaluecollaborative@gmail.com

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Michigan Value Collaborative: Sepsis Reports

Michigan Value Collaborative: Sepsis Reports

In early 2020, the Michigan Value Collaborative (MVC) Coordinating Center created a new sepsis service line with the help of the Michigan Michigan Hospital Medicine Safety Consortium (HMS). Initially the service line began with 215,447 episodes and has since grown to 229,673 episodes. In conjunction with the creation of the sepsis service line, reports customized to each collaborative member hospital were developed. The most recent iteration of these, shared in two volumes, were disseminated to members in February 2021.

Each volume of the sepsis reports serves their own unique purpose. The first volume provides a detailed review into specific components of a sepsis episode with the ability for each member to compare individualized information to regional and statewide averages. These metrics help members garner a better understanding of the sepsis patient population from admission to 90-days post discharge with data on length of stay, causes for readmission, and post-acute care utilization. Figure 1 shares information on length of stay, and this example shows Hospital A’s (a fictional institution) average length of stay to be higher than both the regional and collaborative-wide average. Additionally, metrics such as total episode payment and readmission rates are displayed as trends over time as shown in Figure 2 and Figure 3.

Figure One.

Figure Two.

Figure 3 shows that the individual hospital trend for the 90-day readmission rate is higher than both the regional and MVC averages which mirror each other closely. Initially, the overall hospital trend decreases towards the regional average, but climbs again in 2019. MVC members may wish to use this information to investigate the root causes leading to increased readmissions.

Figure Three.

The second volume of MVC’s sepsis reports provides benchmarking for members to identify how they compare to all other MVC hospitals. Figure 4 shows information on a hospital’s total episode payment compared to the regional and MVC averages. In addition, it shows the range of the average total episode payments across the collaborative. By using previously sent reports, hospitals can compare how the metrics have changed - such as an increase or decrease in collaborative-wide or individualized total episode payments. As these reports are disseminated every six months, when comparing, it is important to take notice of the reporting period covered in each report which can be located in the associated cover letter and footnotes. Members can also access their own sepsis related data on the MVC registry.

Figure Four.

If you have any suggestions on how these reports can be improved or the data made more actionable, we would love to hear from you. We are also seeking feedback on how collaborative members are using this information in their quality improvement projects. Please reach out to the Coordinating Center at michiganvaluecollaborative@gmail.com to share your story. If you have any questions or are interested in custom data for your facility, contact us at the aforementioned email address.